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Dear Readers,

welcome to ENAI newsletter for June 2019!
In the current issue we bring two pieces of advice for teachers to help their students with citations. 
Then, we would like to introduce you a study on role of accreditation and quality assurance bodies in countering corruption, inform you about a new benefit for ENAI members, planned  ENRIO’s First Congress on Research Integrity Practice; and remind you the upcoming ENAI conference in Vilnius and ENAI Annual General Meeting.
We also bring a nightmarish story about an endangered whistle-blower.

In this issue: 

What is the purpose of in-text citations? After all I am giving a full reference list!

This time we bring an answer on a quite common cheeky student question. A ready-to-use answer was prepared by dr Shiva Sivasubramaniam from University of Derby (UK), a teacher by heart and soul, and also a member of ENAI auditing group.

Referencing (whether it is in text or bibliographic) serves two purposes (a) to maintain integrity in that you are attributing the original source and (b) to provide a clear indication to the readers of “which of the ideas in the articles are browed/used from which original source”. This would help the readers easily identify the source to visit for further reading. If the references are only listed in the bibliography, he/she would not have identified the parts from each source. This would make it difficult to do further research on the subject.
For example, if Anna used 10 different sources in her article, without her identifying the parts, sentences, or paragraphs to the sources listed in the reference list, the reader, Bob, would not have a clue about “which information is coming from which reference”. So Bob might end up reading all 10 references to see what he is looking for.

Therefore it is essential to cite the articles used in the research in both in-text and linking them with the reference list. 

Do you have a tricky question about an academic integrity issue? Send it to and we will publish the answer by experts in a future edition of the newsletter!

Why citations?

Do you long for more explanation for your students on how to cite? 
Here you have a short video "Why citations?" for beginner students explaining one of the basics of academic work.
The video is free for download and copying (English, German, resolution for mobile devices as well as large screens) and was prepared by Communication, Information, Media Centre of University of Konstanz.
Do you long for more videos? ENAI's working group for "Educational materials" reviews and recommends video clips for you.

Policies and Actions of Accreditation and Quality Assurance Bodies to Counter Corruption in Higher Education

We would like to present you a report from a global study conducted during 2017-2018 for the Council for Higher Education Accreditation International Quality Group (CHEA/CIQG).
This study by Irene Glendinning, Stella-Maris Orim and Andrew King (Coventry University, UK) captured information about actions and responses of accreditation and quality assurance bodies (AQABs) to address different forms of corruption in higher education.  

Is it life-threatening to investigate plagiarism?

By Julius Kravjar, ENAI board member

Is it life-threatening to investigate plagiarism?
Yes, it can be. One fresh case.

Emilia Șercan is an investigative journalist (for 22 years) working as an assistant professor (for 7 years) at University of Bucharest, Faculty of Journalism and Communication Sciences, Department of Journalism. First time I communicated with her in Brno at the conference Plagiarism across Europe and Beyond 2017. There I learnt about the spectrum of her activities and the power of her personality. She is fearless, steady and unceasing fighter against academic misconduct in Romania.
On factual basis she has held the mirror up to high-ranking government and public sector officials in the matter of their academic misconduct. She mercilessly uncovers plagiarism, corruption, nepotism and other ills in the higher education sector. Her tireless effort has brought positive changes in the real life of academic sector.
“The problem in Romania is that people in all important leadership positions, in all institutions, parties, secret services, administration and even in the academia have plagiarised Ph.D.'s. No one wants a real change. You can't imagine how hard the battle is here and what kind of obstacles they try to find just not to change things and not to be in position to pay for this,” said E. Șercan.
She points out the plagiarism of high-ranking public, political, military and security services officials in her book FABRICA DE DOCTORATE sau Cum se surpa fundamentele unei natii (2017, ISBN 978-973-50-5776-3, 210 pages); in English: DOCTORAL FACTORY or How to Destroy Fundamentals of a Nation.
For the past 4 years, she has been constantly publishing investigations on plagiarised theses defended both in military and civil universities. The list of people who have plagiarised their Ph.D. theses, according to her research, includes the deputy prime-minister, two ministers of Internal Affairs, a Defence minister, an Education minister, a Health minister, the first deputy-in-chief to the Romanian Prosecutor General, the chief of the Judicial Inspection, politicians, judges, rectors, secret service generals and the police quaestor. The details, concrete names and positions of her investigations are documented online.

She has constantly been a target for intimidation and denigration campaigns, however, she has continued to do her job with respect for the truth, serving solely public interest. The death threat that she received on the evening of 15 April by a SMS message represents yet another attempt to hinder her disclosures:
 „We are sending this message with the purpose of preventing what will follow, it all depends on you. Stop all actions that you are currently undertaking ... if you don’t want ordeal to follow. ”

The Romanian police was notified about this. The man who sent the death threats to Emilia Șercan was found on 24 April - he is a police officer, employed by the Police Academy, about which she wrote and had an extensive series of investigations underway. 
The case was transferred on 25 April from the District 4th Attorney Office and the Bucharest Police Office to the National Anti-corruption Directorate (DNA), which is competent to investigate cases involving police officers who have committed certain offences. DNA is a special unit of the Attorney General Office, specialised in corruption cases. The police officer who threatened her admitted that he was the one who sent her that message.

The Police Academy is subject to huge investigation into PhD theses, which was ordered by the Minister of Internal Affairs (the Police Academy is subordinated to the Ministry of Internal Affairs). After the first phase of this investigation, all PhD theses defended between 2011 and 2017 were verified with an anti-plagiarism software and 29.1% of them (55 from 189) were found to have a high percentage of plagiarism. The problem is that no measure was taken since November 2018 when this information was made public. What is very serious is the fact that several professors from the Police Academy are suspected of plagiarism. They obtained their PhD degrees at the Police Academy.
According to the Romanian law, if a PhD degree is withdrawn for plagiarism, that person cannot be a professor anymore - so all such professors, including the quaestor Adrian Iacob (this rank is equivalent to the general in the army), the rector of the Police Academy about whom she wrote on 24 March that he is a plagiarist, may lose their entire academic career because of her revelations.

#ENAI2019: conference in Vilnius and AGM

In ENAI, we are all excited about the 5th ENAI annual conference Plagiarism Across Europe and Beyond which starts within two weeks in Vilnius in Lithuania 19-21 June 2019. Together with a sister conference Shaping Ethics in Academia and Society.
If you can't join us in Vilnius, you don't have to be sad: there will be a broadcast of keynote speeches; plenary speeches; and invited panel discussion on a server (Internet explorer browser is needed), later it will be possible to download  the recordings. You can also follow all conference latest happenings in the real time at Twitter under the hashtag #ENAI2019.  We will keep you informed in the next issues of the newsletter and at ENAI Facebook
ENAI Annual General Meeting will take place the first conference day - Wednesday, 19th June at 5 p.m. local time at the conference venue (room I-201). Apart from representatives of ENAI members, also individual supporters of ENAI and other conference participants are welcome as observers.

New Benefit for ENAI Members: SurveyMonkey

We have a new benefit for ENAI members!
ENAI purchased one-year advanced membership at SurveyMonkey (ADVANTAGE version). It is available from April 2019 valid until 16th April 2020. 
Primary it was purchased as a platform used for iCOP (International Contract Cheating Project), but if you are interested in using this platform for your academic integrity research, we are happy to share the account with you. Contact us for more information.

ENRIO’s First Congress on Research Integrity Practice

The first ENRIO Congress is held in Finland on 5–7 October 2020. The ENRIO2020 Congress is aimed for research integrity officers, research directors, science funding organisations, research networks, and other professionals in the field of research integrity and research ethics, members of ethics committees, and university teachers and researchers. The Congress presents an excellent opportunity to keep abreast of the latest thinking and insights on current issues and best practice in the field of research integrity, and expand your network of colleagues across Europe.
We will approach you with the next regular newsletter at the beginning of August 2019. If you want to share with us, and with other recipients, any interesting news from your country or some curiosities from the area of academic integrity, we will welcome your contributions. Please send them to us before 25th July 2019 to
Feel free to share the newsletter with your friends and colleagues, or send them this subscription link, the newsletter is open to everyone until September 2019.

Sincerely yours
European Network for Academic Integrity team
European Network for Academic Integrity, 2019

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