A Facciola et al. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2019;23:1266-1278.
Biosafety Newsletter Archive
"Scientific evidence supports the hypothesis that hospitals can act as an important reservoir of many nosocomial pathogens in several environments such as surfaces, medical equipment and water systems."
Environmental survival time of pathogens causing HAIs:
E. coli 1.5 h to 16 mo;
P. aeruginosa 6 h to 16 mo;
Klebsiella spp. 2 h to 30 mo;
Acinetobacter spp. 3 d to 5 mo;
Methicillin R Staph aureus 7 d to 7 mo;
Vancomycin R Enterococci 5 d to 4 mo;
C. difficile > 5 mo:
C. albicans 1 d to 120 d; and
Norovirus 8 h to 7 d.
Organisms of HAI concern:
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE);
Methacillin-resistant Staph aureus (MRSA);
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE); and