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EURspace
1st edition | december 2016
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Contents:
- EURspace Project
- Partners
- Transnational Meetings
- ECVET
- Existent conditions favourable for the implementation of the principals of ECVET


Portugal | Spain | France | Italy | Lithuania | Romania | Turkey
EURspace Project
The EURspace: European IVT Recognition Gateway, reference no. 2015-1-PT01-KA202-013119, is a European Project financed by the Erasmus+ Programme, KA2, which has the general aim to facilitate the mobility of IVET students across Europe and contribute towards the development of vocational education and training without borders, as well as transparency in the recognition and certification of the learning outcomes acquired abroad.
The EURspace products will provide support to ensure the recognition, validation, attribution of credits and certification of Initial Vocational Training Units, applied within other European countries, allowing the combination of theoretical and practical approaches, therefore extending the national scale to the European scale.
Project start: 01-09-2015 | Project end: 01-09-2018


Target Groups
- Learners in Initial Vocational Education and Training Courses (European countries).
- VET Professionals; Teachers; Trainers; Principals; Directors of VET Centres; Technicians who work in VET Mobility Programmes; representatives or technicians from organizations that intend to promote European Mobility Programmes.
- Schools; VET Centres; Organizations involved in European Mobility Programmes (sending organizations, hosting organizations, intermediary organizations, organizations providing internships). 


Specific Aims
1. To develop a European Digital Platform to support the processes of recognition, validation, allocation of credits and certification of learning outcomes acquired abroad by learners in VET;
2. To implement a Pilot Project to develop a Matching Methodology between the curricula of European countries. The pilot experiment will be carried out for the learning outcomes of cookery and pastry courses.
3. To elaborate Matching Matrices between the curricula of the countries, in reference to the units of learning outcomes involved in the Pilot Project;
4. To create a EURspace Pedagogical Kit, conceived by reference to the Matching Methodology developed.
5. To create a Guide to support ECVET Understanding for Learners in IVET.
6. To train professionals from European countries to manage the European Digital Platform and to use the Matching Methodology and the Pedagogical Tools;
7. To disseminate the Project’s outputs through six multiplier events to take place in Portugal, Spain, France, Romania, Lithuania and Turkey. 
Methodology
A Matching Methodology will be developed and carried out during the implementation of a Pilot Project, following the next steps: identification of the technological, technical and practical learning outcomes that are common to the Cookery and Pastry qualifications within the partner countries; grouping the learning outcomes into nuclear units; identification of common units of learning outcomes between the curricula of the partner countries (matching); definition of the credit system and the attribution of ECVET points; setting performance criteria and requirements to assess the learning outcomes; conception of Matching Matrices between the curricula of the partner countries.  
Project Outputs

     O1 - European Digital Platform to support the recognition, validation, allocation of credits and certification of qualifications and/or training units, through the references of the learning outcomes developed by VET participants within the context of the European Mobility Programmes.
      O2 - EURspace Pedagogical Kit composed of a Methodological Guide for Professionals (descriptive guide of the Matching Methodology developed) and a Battery of Instruments, elaborated through the methodology followed during the Pilot Project.
     O3 - Guide to support ECVET Understanding for Learners in Initial Vocational Education and Training – EURspace for Learners in IVET. This Guide is aimed at Learners attending Initial Vocational Education and Training Courses in Europe.
-----------------------------    PARTNERS    -----------------------------
Escola Profissional do Alto Lima, CIPRL (Project Coordinator)

Epralima also promotes Lifelong Vocational Guidance and Recognition, Validation and Certification of Competences at educational and professional levels.
Since 1998, Epralima has been working in European Mobility Programmes, as a sending and hosting organization.
The School’s main focus is the Youth Vocational Education and Training and the successful transition between school and labour market.
Epralima Vocational Training School is a private and cooperative School, which focuses on Vocational Education and Training, offering Youth and Adult Education Training Courses at II, III, IV and V European levels.
 
Portugal
Contact Person: Célia Nunes | celianunes@epralima.pt | +351 258 520 327
ASSOCIAIZONE CNOS FAP REGIONE UMBRIA

The Associazione Cnos Fap Regione Umbria is a non-profit organization for Vocational Training with Guidance inspired to Christian values, Don Bosco Preventive System, intent on promoting a service of public interest in the field of guidance, training and professional of the update with the style of Don Bosco.
Our main activities are:
• Initial Vocational Training (16-18 years old);
• Vocational Training (for over 18 years old);
• Lifelong Learning for professional update;
• Re-Qualification for people who have lost their job.

 
Italy
Contact person:
Altheo Valentini | altheo.valentini@egina.eu | +393 471 299 123
www.cnosumbria.it
  
COLEGIUL TEHNIC “GHEORGHE CARTIANU”

Technical College Gheorghe Cartianu from Piatra Neamt, N-E region, Romania is a big technological high-school with 1450 students and 75 teachers. The range of qualifications that can be obtained in our school is very wide and can be divided into five major areas: computers and computer science, electronics and telecommunications, mechanical and metal working, construction and building design, textiles and leather, chemistry and environmental protection, food industry and food services.
Education and training offered by our school must be adjusted to the reality of the workforce-market and because of the lack of working offers in the area it is compulsory to train all the students in jobs suitable for European workforce market like cooker, baker, welder, garment worker, mechanic, electrician construction worker etc.

Romania
Contact person
:
Eleonora Dragomir | budureleonora@yahoo.com | +407 546 031 19
www.colegiulcartianu.ro
VILNIUS TOURISM AND COMMERCE SCHOOL
Vilnius Tourism and Commerce School is one of the biggest vocational schools in Vilnius city and region. The school consists of 3 departments: business and commerce; hotel and restaurante; general education.
School mission – continuously improve the quality of education and to make self-development for all members of the community become an inner need for acquiring professional qualifications to the new competencies required for a professional career and meaningful life.
School vision - effectively working vocational school as a community vocational education and cultural centre, open to the public and to the world, constantly learning, positive educational changes initiating educational institution.
Business and commerce department educates shop assistants, small business workers, trade consultants, tallymen, logistics expeditors. In hotel and restaurant department there are the following programmes: cooker, confectioner, waiter-bartender, hotel worker, tourism agent.

 

Lithuania
Contact Person: Ramune Vadeikyte | ramuneva@gmail.com | +370 614 927 99
www.vtpvm.lt
Zeynep Mehmet Donmez Vocational and Technical High School

Zeynep Mehmet Donmez Vocational and Technical High School is a secondary education institution, subordinated to the Ministry of National Education. It has been providing vocational education in tourism and hospitality services in the region since 1996. The departments are: “Hospitality Services” and “Preparation, Presentation and Service of Food & Beverage”.
 
Turkey
Contact Person:
Mehmet Doğan | doganmehmet55@yahoo.com | +905 062 485 407
http://zeynepmehmetdonmezotml.meb.k12.tr
Sustainable Development Management Institute

Sustainable Development Management Institute (SDMI) believes that learning is an essential dimension of the human existence, thus it is a life-long experience.
Learning engages people, as well as the social entities they constitute, throughout the lifespan. It is a fundamental for all human beings who interact constructively with an evermore rapidly changing complex environment and to be able to do so being fully aware of the history of humankind.
Learning is therefore a crucial dimension of sustainable development. We feel that learning is inherently social activity and thus we take into consideration the learning individuals in the context of learning communities.
Learning communities have different levels of organizational complexity. Each individual is normally part of a variety of learning communities, such as a school or training context, the family, places of worship, the workplace, the marketplace.

France
Contact Person:
Bala Ganessane | contact@sdmi-edu.fr | +336 151 375 04  
www.sdmi-edu.fr
Heziketa Teknikoko Elkartea

HETEL is an association of 20 Vocational Training Centres created by social initiative which are present in all regions in the Basque Country, Spain. It was set up in 1987 to promote and improve the Vocational Training provision. The objectives of the Association are the exchange of experience and know-how between VET centres, foster innovation in VET education, both from a technological and pedagogical point of view and contribute to fill the gap between VET education and the demands of the business world.
The Vocational Training Centres of HETEL belong to the Network of Integrated Vocational Training Centres under the Basque Plan of Vocational Training.

Spain
Contact Person: Tamara Rodríguez | international@hetel.org | +349 440 340 60

www.hetel.org
Inercia Digital S.L.

Inercia Digital is a young Andalusian social company (Spain) with outlets europeanwide. Its main target is to contribute with innovative solutions to both e-business and web entrepreneurship skills for organizations, SMEs and entrepreneurs (e-learning on e-business). The Andalusian Employment Service of the Regional Government of Andalusia has awarded Inercia Digital the recognition of Collaborative Entity in Training for Employment in the discipline of e-learning. Our training areas are highly specialised and designed to teach organizations and entrepreneurs how to be efficient on the Internet. Our courses are specialised in the following training areas: web entrepreneurship, e-business and e-learning with updated tools in order to achieve a better education and professional training.

Spain
Contact Person: Caridad Albornoz | caridadcarrillo@inerciadigital.com | +346 876 805 71
http://www.inerciadigital.com
----------------------------    TRANSNATIONAL MEETINGS    ----------------------------
Kick-Off Meeting – Portugal

The Kick-Off Meeting of the EURspace Project was held in Arcos de Valdevez, Portugal, from the 25th to 26th of November 2015, organized by the coordinator partner – Escola Profissional do Alto Lima CIPRL.
The Project, which had started up in September 2015, acquired a further boost with the realization of the first transnational meeting, which contributed to the exchange of experiences between Partners, comparing the functioning of the educational system between countries, especially with regard to Initial Vocational Education and Training, as well as the state of development of each country, concerning to the recognition, validation and certification of the learning outcomes acquired by IVET learners, during their participation in European mobility programes.
2nd Transnational Meeting - Turkey

The second transnational meeting of the EURspace Project was held in Didim, Turkey, from the 19th to 20th of May 2016.
In Turkey, the Project Partners discussed the methodological approach to adopt in order to implement a Pilot Project which aims to identify the common learning outcomes within the technical component of the Hotel and Restaurant Management Courses, among the countries of the partnership.
Each partner organization presented the curriculum of the Hotel and Restaurant Management Courses offered by the School, the respective Professional Profiles and Career Opportunities. The training levels to involve in the Pilot Project were also identified, by reference to the European Qualifications Framework.
3rd Transnational Meeting - ROMANIA

The third transnational meeting of the EURspace Project was held in Piatra Neamt, Romania, from the 4th to 5th of October 2016.
The Pilot Project that is being implemented for the professional qualifications of the Hotel and Restaurant Management field was one of the main focuses of the meeting agenda. The Pilot Project consists in the development and implementation of a Matching Methodology between the curricula of the partner countries. The first step is the identification of the learning outcomes that the learner must evidence in order to acquire one qualification. 
The description of qualifications based in units of learning outcomes is one of the technical specifications for the implementation of the ECVET, mentioned in the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009.
The Project partnership adopted the following acceptation of Learning Outcomes: “statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process and which are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence” (Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009). In the context of the EURspace Project, Learning Outcomes are also intended as key realizations / key tasks achieved, in which the learner evidences a set of acquired knowledge, skills and competence considered nuclear for the achievement of one qualification.
-----------------------------    ECVET    -----------------------------
The European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) is a common European technical framework that intends to:
- Improve the general understanding of citizens’ learning outcomes and its transparency, transnational mobility and portability across and, where appropriate, within Member States in a borderless lifelong learning area;
- Facilitate the compatibility, comparability and complementarily of credit systems used in Vocational Education and Training (VET) and the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS), which is used in the higher education sector, and thus should contribute to greater permeability between levels of education and training, in accordance with national legislation and practice;
- Facilitate the cooperation between the Member-States, increasing transparency and the promotion of lifelong learning and the mobility of citizens.
On 12 November 2002 the Council of the European Union approved a Resolution on the promotion of enhanced European cooperation in Vocational Education and Training, which subsequently served as the basis for the declaration for the strategy for improving the performance, quality and attractiveness of VET.
The Copenhagen Declaration of 30 November 2002, highlighted the priority of developing a credit transfer system in Vocational Education and Training, in order to promote the "transparency, comparability, transferability and recognition of competences and/or qualifications, between different countries and at different levels."
The Maastricht Communiqué of 14 December 2004, on the Future Priorities of Enhanced European Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training (VET), has reinforced the need to give priority to the development and implementation of the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training.

The Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 created a European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) with the purpose to facilitate the transfer, recognition and accumulation of assessed learning outcomes of individuals who are aiming to achieve a qualification.

Since then, the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) has been developed within the framework of the European cooperation in Vocational Education and Training, under the guidance of the European Commission.

However, VET providers and entities involved in European mobility programmes are still faced with many obstacles when try to put ECVET into in practice.

The EURspace Project has the purpose to contribute with a Methodological Framework, Tools and a Digital Platform that will be useful to those who are involved in European mobility programmes and Vocational Education and Training and intend to put ECVET in practice.

Existent conditions favourable for the implementation of the principals of ECVET | PORTUGAL

In December 2007, Decree-Law No 396/2007 created a National Qualification System (NQS), under the Vocational Education and Training reform, in which modularization was introduced. Training modules are present at both lower and upper secondary level, in apprenticeships and in training programmes for those aged 18 and over who want to achieve academic and vocational qualifications.

The National Qualification System assumes the main purpose to increase the qualification level of the Portuguese population, giving priority to the universality of secondary level as a minimum qualification of the population, as well as betting on dual certification qualification (both academic and vocational qualifications), either by increasing the provision of Vocational Education and Training courses (youth and adults), or through Recognition, Validation and Certification of formal, informal and non-formal learning.
One of National Qualification System' s main tools is the National Qualifications Catalogue (NQC), which aims to regulate and organize the dual certification offers regarding Vocational Education and Training, making them relevant and tailored to the requirements of enterprises and labour market.
The National Qualifications Catalogue (NQC) is developed in line with the implementation of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) – Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008, on the EQF institution for Learning Lifelong (2008 / C 111 / 01) – and also the National Qualifications Framework (NQF).

The Portuguese National Qualifications Catalogue:
- is a strategic management tool of national qualifications of non-higher education;
- is an instrument of regulation of vocational education and training offers of dual certification (both academic and vocational qualifications);
- integrates qualification frameworks (referential) for Vocational Education and Training dual certification, for both youths and adults, and qualification frameworks (referential) for Recognition, Validation and Certification of Competences.
The Portuguese National Qualifications Catalogue (NQC) currently integrates 303 vocational qualifications, organized by 40 training fields (September 2016).
For each qualification, the National Qualifications Catalogue presents:
- the Occupational Profile – a set of activities associated with the qualification, and the theoretical knowledge, the know how to do and the know how to be, to perform such activities;
- the Training Referential/Framework – composed by a basis training component and a technological training component, organized by short-term training units, which can be capitalized and autonomously certifiable Within the same training field;
- the Recognition Validation and Certification of Competences (RVCC) Referential/Framework – a set of assessment tools for use in the Recognition, Validation and Certification of professional skills.

The current Training Referential/Framework (either for youths training or for adults training) are still input-oriented. It is under review at the moment. Since January of 2015, the National Agency for the Qualification and Vocational Training (ANQEP) is working in a framework in order to organize qualifications based in learning outcomes.

The National System of Recognition, Validation and Certification of professional competences (accreditation of prior learning) is much more output-oriented. The current RVCC Referential/Framework is based in competences and focalized in the learning results. The Referential for RVCC Professional Skills is organized in Units of Competence (UC) – instead of training units. Each Professional Skills Referential includes the identification of actions to perform, performance criteria, description of context conditions and learning outcomes' descriptors.

In Portugal, qualifications are currently organized by reference to the EQF levels, through the entry into force of the National Qualifications Framework (NQF).
The National Qualifications Framework (NQF), in force since 1st of October 2010, was created by Decree-Law No 396/2007 of 31 December and is regulated by Ordinance No. 782/2009 of 23 July, which repeals the application of the training levels structure established by the Council Decision 85/368 / EEC of 16 July.
The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) is structured into 8 qualification levels. Each level is defined by a set of descriptors indicating the learning outcomes relevant to qualifications at that level, in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

The referentiation process has shown that there is a clear and direct relationship between the levels and descriptors of the Portuguese National Qualifications Framework and the European Qualifications Framework. Thus, if an individual holds a level 4 qualification of the National Qualifications Framework, has the level 4 of the European Qualifications Framework.

In Portugal, the National Agency for the Qualification and Vocational Training (ANQEP) is the National Coordination Point for the implementation of the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET), since March 2012.

Existent conditions favourable for the implementation of the principals of ECVET  | Spain

The Reform of the Professional Qualifications Framework started in 2002 with the approval of the Organic Law 5/2002. This Law followed the Copenhagen Declaration of 2002.

To answer the demands and recommendations of the Copenhagen Declaration, Spain started to work in the development of a National Qualifications Framework (the Spanish Framework of Qualifications, MECU) and its correspondence to the European Qualifications Framework (EQF), going through all levels of education.

The MECU is the result of the National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications (CNCP) plus the Spanish Framework of Qualifications for Higher Education (MECES).

The CNCP defines the qualifications of levels 1, 2 and 3, corresponding with levels 1-5 from the EQF, so all levels of VET (from Initial VET to Higher VET, in formal and informal education), whereas the MECES defines the qualifications corresponding to all levels of higher education (from 5-8 of EQF). The MECES was developed in 2011 to complete the MECU.

The MECU (National Qualifications Framework) combines the CNCP and the MECES but the reference for the first one is the National Institute of Qualifications (INCUAL), dependent from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport and the reference of the second one is the National Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation (ANECA), also dependent of the Ministry of Education. In this regard, one of the weaknesses of the Spanish System of Qualifications is that there is not a unique national centre coordinated with the European Framework.
Nevertheless, there is an alignment between the EQF and the NQF in Spain (MECU):

EQF CNCP Degree (in Spanish)
1 1 Operario
2
3 2 Técnico Medio
4
5 3 Ténico Superior
6 4 Grado
7 5 Máster
8 Not defined Doctor (PhD)

Source: INCUAL

 In Spain, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport – Sub directorate General for Guidance and Vocational Training is the National Coordination Point for the implementation of the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET).

Existent conditions favourable for the implementation of the principals of ECVET  | FRANCE
In France, the following national policies facilitate the implementation of ECVET principles:

- A new programme launched in 2014 by the Ministry of Education which introduced “International Mobility” as an option in school curriculums. The ministry is currently accompanying 30 academies as the pilot project.
- In addition, there are 11 experimental projects and 4 training sessions organised concerning ECVET. Furthermore, there have been 9 informational sessions and 13 activities explaining the activities of ECVET during various celebrations/holidays relating to Europe.
- Creation of an organisation ‘Groupe technique national ECVET’. This regroups 40 institutions (Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Culture and Communication, National Employment Centre, Apprenticeship Training Centre, Chamber of Commerce and International Centre for Pedagogical Studies).
- Official support for Erasmus+; Training sessions for employees, translation of KA1 FORM PRO contracts for the ECVET section, creation of an information platform called Penelope+
- A job shadowing with the polish counterparts in ECVET +. This is a common project in partnership with ECVET BEFR/CH/Lux.
- Creation of new coordinating teams. 

However, despite the current 33 members having established National Reference Points for Quality Assurance in VET, in France this is yet to be implemented.

In France, the Agence Erasmus+ France / Education et Formation is the National Coordination Point for the implementation of the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET).
Existent conditions favourable for the implementation of the principals of ECVET  | ITALY
During the past decade, all segments of the VET system have been affected by an important reform process, still not completed.

In the second cycle education reform (e.g. IFP-ISCED 3), the documents attached to the regulations of Law 53/2003 issued for each type of training offer included in the cycle, lay out the expected outcomes in terms of knowledge, abilities and skills. In particular, the ‘student educational, cultural and professional profile’ defined in Annex D of the regulations indicates the learning outcomes common to all pathways (set of education and training standards for basic skills), as well as the specific learning outcomes for each professional profile (set of minimum national education and training standards for specific technical and vocational skills). These are the basis on which education and training providers develop study programmes (training offer plans (plano dell’offerta formativa).

Specific guidelines to support education and training providers in drawing up their training offer plans according to a learning outcome approach were also provided by the Ministry of Education in cooperation with teachers, social partners, professional associations, representatives of the regions and autonomous provinces. Education and training providers develop study programmes that comprise learning modules aimed at developing basic, transversal and technical vocational skills (Cedefop ReferNet Italy, 2012).

Under the IFTS, pathways are organised in modules and capitalised units. They enable students to gain training credits valid in the university system and are ECTS-compatible (Cedefop ReferNet Italy, 2012).

Generally, second cycle education, as well as higher education, has mostly a tradition of holistic qualification structure based on a close fit between learning outcomes and learning processes, and a final assessment at the end of a programme. Successful completion of the programme is a prerequisite for the award of the nationally recognised certificate (Cedefop, 2014, forthcoming).

Over the past few years, increased cooperation between the state, the regions and the provinces has made education and training more flexible, enabling students to switch to different pathways to avoid school drop-out. There are several important systemic elements:
a)  a set of education and training standards for basic skills to be developed in IFP (2011);
b) a set of minimum education and training standards (valid at national level) for technical and vocational skills in relation to the professional profiles included in the national qualifications index (repertorio nazionale delle qualifiche) (2011);
c)  intermediate (after three years) and final (after four years) certifications (valid at national level) that enable students to switch from general education pathways to VET options (2011) (Cedefop ReferNet Italy, 2012).

There has been a formal decision to develop a new credit system that is compatible with ECVET (currently Italy does not have a fully developed credit system) for IVET and CVET. The more relevant and recent policy reference is the National Legislative Decree 16 January 2013, No 13, adopted within the labour market reform 92/2012. It includes concrete measures to develop a LLL system in Italy and constitutes the legal basis for a ‘national public certification system’ for validating and recognising knowledge, skills and competence achieved outside formal education. The national certification system is also being designed to introduce a national credit system consistent with ECVET.

The credit system will be developed as a legal framework. It will be based on a learning outcomes approach, with qualifications articulated in minimum certifiable components consistent with units of learning outcomes. Introduction of credit points is not yet foreseen.

The specific responsibilities of different stakeholders in developing the credit system have been defined.
Existent conditions favourable for the implementation of the principals of ECVET  | LITHUANIA

Since 01-01-2015 Education Exchanges Support Foundation (Lithuanian National Agency for Erasmus+ projects) together with the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania has been carrying on the project named ‘ECVET team’. There are seven national experts.

The goals of ECVET team are:

- to raise awareness about the ECVET application and benefits among vocational training providers and other stakeholders;
- to cooperate with national authorities and other stakeholders in order to influence the development of the political system through ECVET in Lithuania;
- to deepen the knowledge of the ECVET implementation.

Currently in Lithuania there are 74 vocational education institutions, offering over 200 different training programmes. In the future the number of schools is going to decrease as more schools are going to be merged into larger vocational training centres. Even if the number of students in general is decreasing, the number of Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET) learners is constantly growing.

In the next 2 years, some innovations will be introduced: there will be more opportunities for vocational training in the workplace, a wider choice of apprenticeship, learning modules. It will make vocational training more flexible in responding to both employers and those seeking to acquire profession needs.

Vocational Education and Training (VET) organized in a modular way will allow learners as soon as possible to obtain individual professional competence. From now on it won’t be necessary to learn the full programme consistently, it will be possible to reach qualification learning the individual modules. This will enable faster integration into the labour market, and then return to school to learn new professional competencies.

Existent conditions favourable for the implementation of the principals of ECVET  | ROMANIA

In Romania, training in formal learning contexts is provided by two complementary systems: the system of initial training and continuing training system. Through initial training, human resources acquire a qualification which allows for a job and then through continuous training, career development throughout life, according to labour market requirements, evolving, and personal aspirations.

Education and training for children, youth and adults have the main purpose to develop skills, understood as a whole multifunctional and transferable knowledge, skills / abilities required for:

a) personal fulfilment and development by achieving their goals in life, according to the interests and aspirations of each one and desire to learn throughout life;

b) social integration and active citizen participation in society;

c) finding a job and participating in the operation and development of a sustainable economy;

d) forming a concept of life, based on scientific and humanistic values, on national and universal culture and fostering intercultural dialogue;

e) developing a culture of dignity, tolerance and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;

f) growing sensitivity towards human problems, moral and civic values ​​to and respect for nature and the natural environment, social and cultural.

Initial training provided by vocational education and training (CIPT) is regulated by the Law of National Education 1/2011 and related regulations.

According to HG 855 of 26 November 1998, National Centre for Technical and Vocational Education Development aims to continue the reform of vocational and technical education, with EU support through the PHARE VET RO 9405.

Following comprehensive reform programmes that have targeted the entire system and also specific components, TVET has experienced a number of advances, which are benchmarks for future strategy development.

Initial vocational training is based on employer demand. The existence of a practical training contract for each student is a prerequisite for approving school offer. Evolution of the initial vocational training during last years:

• since the school year 2012 - 2013: vocational education lasting 2 years held after the completion of the ninth grade to high school, governed by the Minister of National Education 3168/2012; it includes a significant component of practical training, carried out in workshops at school and the workplacement (first year – 60% of the total programme; second year – 75% of the total programme);

• since the school year 2014 - 2015: vocational education lasting 3 years after completion of grade 8, governed by the Minister of National Education 3136/2013; it includes a significant component of practical training, carried out in workshops at school and the workplacement (first year – 20% of the total programme; second year – 60% of the total programme; third year – 72% of the total programme).

Offer professional qualifications that can be acquired through vocational education and training are determined annually based on a model of strategic planning of the supply of training by IPT in order to ensure relevance supply the needs of the labour market forecast; CNDIPT model was designed with the support of several institutions and experts with competencies in human resources development and implemented since 2004. In the period 2004-2013 were made updates to the implementation of this model. The decision is based on decentralization and its distribution on multiple decision levels: national, regional, county and local. Also, strategic planning is a participatory exercise based on collective actions of multiple economic and social partners representing the interests of employers, professional associations, employees / unions, government, relevant government organizations and other civil society organizations. The model combines top-down decision-stream at the bottom up. Planning decision belongs to the county level, which shall inform the monitoring and documenting results and is based both on the local labour market specificity, as well as institutional responsiveness of the educational institution. Monitoring is done by the next higher levels. Strategic planning documents are:

     • Regional Action Plan for Education (PRAI) - regional scope;

     • Local Action Plan for Education (LEAP) - county scope;

     • School Action Plan (SAP) - school / community.

It has been improved the quality of education and initial training through networking partnership between schools, built on specific areas of training (agriculture, industrial chemistry, environment, trade, economic, construction, installation and civil works, electrical, electromechanical, electronics, automation, food industry, textile and leather industry, mechanics, tourism and food, forestry and wood product manufacturing). Interschool partnership networks were created in order to promote cooperation and exchange of best practices within the network and the network between schools and business representatives. A guide to developing partnership networks was developed in 2013 and is available at:

http://parteneriatpentrucalitate.tvet.ro/Ghid%20de%20bune%20practici_A4_bleed%203mm_228%20pag.pdf

Also at has been ations to support the development of entrepreneurial skills of students in IPT, by training 600 teachers to implement in the educational process - educational methods of teaching and training to develop students' entrepreneurial skills (through training students to establish training firms) and promoting the development of local, regional and national business competitions.
Existent conditions favourable for the implementation of the principals of ECVET  | TURKEY
Turkey, since being formally recognized as a candidate for EU membership at the Helsinki European Council in December 1999, has been engaged in the accession process, preparing itself to fulfil all the conditions of the membership known as the «Copenhagen Criteria». For this reason, the education sector, VET in particular, is one of the important areas that Turkey has been working on. The Turkish Ministry of National Education, the responsible body for managing the overall education system, has been implementing a comprehensive reform process in all aspects of vocational education and training (VET) since 2004.

Some of the milestones of the VET reform implemented since 2002 have been summarized below. Reforms were mainly achieved through some EU funded projects (via MEDA and IPA programs) under the administration of the Ministry of National Education, in close cooperation with social partners.

In order to successfully implement the European Credit Transfer System in Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) a viable National Qualifications Framework (NQF) is essential. Turkey is aware that the development of these two systems (NQF and ECVET) needs to be done in parallel.

Therefore, before talking about the Turkish initiatives for ECVET, the development process of the NQF in Turkey should also be examined.

A major milestone towards a working NQF in Turkey was the establishment of the Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA - MYK) in 2006. This was the result of two years of intensive work on an EU funded VET project with the Ministry of National Education (MoNE), the Council of Higher Education (CoHE) and a diverse range of relevant stakeholders, mainly social partners.

The Vocational Qualifications Authority acts as the EQF National Co-ordination Point in Turkey. It is expressed clearly that professional standards, testing and certification services will be done by institutions and organizations authorized from VQA.

The Regulations on “Preparation of the National Professional Standards” and “Establishment of The Sector Committees, Duties and Study” were promulgated on October 5, 2007 and 27 November 2007 respectively.

Determination of the format of professional-standards according to international practice and levels of vocational qualification compatible to EQF were adopted.

In this context, all the documents related with 250 occupational atandards prepared through the coordination of ISKUR’s (Turkish Employment Organization) and approximately 300 occupational atandards prepared by TSE (Turkish Standards Institution) with its own means and the standards prepared through the coordination of MoNE thanks to SVET Project (Strengthening the Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey Project) between 2003-2007 period have been taken from these institutions and were started to evaluate.

The studies oriented to establish a National Qualifications System has been carried out within the framework of SVET Project in Turkey. The most important output of these studies is the law on Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA) approved on 21st September 2006. The establishment of the VQA has been seen as the most important advantage of Turkey for implementing ECVET.

The system will be based on certifications within the accepted occupational standards. It is worth noting here that Turkey has adopted 8 reference levels from the EQF for the National Qualification Framework (NQF), which will be developed. VQA has two major responsibilities that are crucial to strengthening the relationship between the VET system and employment. First, it is expected to develop occupational standards (OS) based on competences currently required by the labour market. These OS will shape the development of training standards to be used by all training institutions in the country. Over 150 OS have been prepared so far in cooperation with social partners and sector representatives. VQA also has important responsibilities in the area of assessment and certification of learning outcomes gained by all individuals. It will contribute to overcoming major weaknesses in the Turkish VET system, including the lack of standardised mechanisms to assess and control the quality and the relevance to employment of the learning process that takes place in training institutions leading to the improvement of mobility in VET.

In Turkey, ECVET is considered as a tool for supporting mutual trust in the field of qualifications and for increasing transparency. It would thereby enable knowledge, skills and competences acquired through formal, non-formal and informal learning to be accumulated, transferred and recognised.

Designing the modular educational programmes and application of them will also facilitate the implementation of ECVET in Turkey. Since most of the universities have already started to apply ECTS successfully for some time, it is evaluated as another advantage in terms of implementing ECVET.

Turkey is committed to developing an ECVET system under the lifelong learning approach. This commitment was officially declared in an international meeting concerning ECVET on 28th March 2007 in Ankara. First, in the same year, an extensive consultation process took place, with over 250 responses from a broad range of stakeholders. MoNE then prepared a Country Report on ECVET, reflecting the views of the stakeholders.

MoNE then organised a series of workshops with the participation of representatives of CoHE, social partners, teachers from VET, trainers and members of the curricula working groups of MoNE. An ECVET approach specific to Turkey was discussed and based on lessons learnt from the practices of EU Member States.
As a result of this development process, an ECVET discussion paper for Turkey - including a proposed action plan based on SWOT analysis - was prepared. In keeping with the action plan, a multi-actor working group agreed on an approach to assigning credits to the existing VET curriculum. Following this, a national credit-allocation approach was used to allocate credit points to all learning outcomes based on knowledge, skills and competences.
The basic elements of the ECVET approach specific to the Turkish VET context are:
- Learning outcomes are credited based on total learning time.
- Learning outcomes which lead to qualifications of similar scope, content, complexity and duration are allocated the same amount of credits.
- Learning outcomes gained through one-to-one learning of up to 20 hours are equivalent to 1 ECVET credit.
- One full educational year of VET education is equivalent to 60 credits.
- 240 credits can be gained upon completion of 4 years of secondary formal VET education.

“The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsi­ble for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.”

The EURspace Team whishes you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!
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