June 3, 2021

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News and Events from the CIRHR

Find the CIRHR at LERA 2021: The LERA 73rd Annual Meeting will take place online this year from June 5 to 8, 2021. "A Transformational Moment? Work, Worker Power, and the Workplace in an Era of Division and Disruption" will feature numerous faculty, students, alumni and friends of the CIRHR. 
Here are some highlights of where to find the CIRHR community.

New Rotman Executive Program: People Analytics for HR: The online program, led by CIRHR Assistant Professor Greg Distelhorst, is designed to teach human resource professionals—including managers and directors from both the public and private sectors—how to understand, interpret, and apply data strategically. This partnership between CIRHR and Rotman’s Executive Programs is one of many opportunities for today’s HR, labour and management professionals to continue expanding their expertise with the CIRHR.
Click here for more information and to apply.

Conflict Resolution at Work: Hosted jointly by the University of Toronto's CIRHR and Lancaster House this two-day program features proven skills and strategies for managers and union representatives. Conflict resolution has long been identified as one of the key skills that union and employer representatives must possess to be successful in their roles. Drawing from extensive research and field testing, this program will provide training in the most effective skills and strategies for resolving workplace conflict. Emphasis will be on hands-on skills training and development of practical tools.
When: Monday, June 28 and Wednesday, June 30, 2021, 12:00 PM – 4:00 PM ET
Click here to register. 
NEW: Special promotion for graduates of the CIRHR, SAVE $150.

Upcoming Events and Webinars

Massive Disruptions and the 'New Normal': The Future Skills Research Lab and Palette Skills are hosting Massive Disruptions and the 'New Normal.' A panel of experts will discuss learning loss, skills deficits and catching up in the wake of COVID 19. Moderator: Brad Seward (Director of RIES, CIRHR Assistant Professor).
When: Tuesday, June 15, 2021, 3:00 PM - 4:30 PM ET
Where: Online via Zoom

Click here to register.

Lancaster House Summer Webinar Series: Lancaster House brings together the entire labour relations community and speakers represent a diversity of perspectives and include union and management lawyers, arbitrators, academics, and subject matter experts. These webinars provide an opportunity to join labour lawyers and subject matter experts discussing contentious, emerging, and perennially important issues in labour, employment, and human rights law. Topics include:

Call for Papers and Nominations

Call for Memories - An Oral History Project: The Toronto Workers' History Project (TWHP) is launching a new project to gather the memories of the old-timers in Toronto’s labour movement. So much of the history of the struggles of the city’s workers is available only in the stories that these women and men can tell. Who should be on the list to be interviewed? Anyone who made an important contribution to the struggles of working people in this city. They don’t have to have been president of their union. We want to cast the net widely. Send us names and contact information, with ages and health condition of these people, along with some information on what they contributed to labour’s cause. We’ll follow up and contact them.
Click here to access the interview nomination form.

Call for Papers: 51st Annual Conference of the International Association of Labour History Institutions (IALHI): This year’s IALHI conference is dedicated to the role of youth movements and youth activism in broader social movements in past and present. Papers may address key areas of youth mobilization and youth movements’ patterns of organization, but also consequences of youth movements’ specificities for archivists and researchers. Papers must be submitted by June 20, 2021. 
Click here for more information on submission requirements.

Call for Proposals: The Global Labour Research Centre (GLRC)The GLRC is pleased to announce the 2021 Graduate Student Symposium: Critical Conversations in Work and Labour. Building on the tradition of GLRC annual conferences, this online series is designed to promote the scholarship of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. Our goal is to create a series reflective of the wide range of themes and methodological and theoretical approaches pertaining to the study of work and labour. Please note the Symposium is open internationally. Submissions are limited to graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career independent researchers. The deadline for submissions is Saturday, July 31, 2021, 11:59 pm ET.
Click here for more information on submission requirements.

Upcoming Publications and Conferences

LERA 73rd Annual Meeting: The Labor and Employment Relations Association's (LERA) 73rd Annual Meeting will take place virtually Saturday June 5, 2021 to Tuesday June 8, 2021
Topic: "A Transformational Moment? Work, Worker Power and the Workplace in an Era of Division and Disruption"
Registration is now open! Click here to register.

19th ILERA World Congress: The 19th ILERA World Congress, Making and Breaking Boundaries in Work and Employment Relations, hosted by Lund University will take place virtually from Monday, June 21 to Thursday, June 24, 2021
Registration is now open! Click here to register.

Brave New Work Conference 2021: The Messy Middle of the Future of Work: The world of work has changed on all fronts, but what about the middle? That part of work between the leap from education into the labour market and the exit from the labour market after years of contribution, both economically and professionally. The Messy Middle is where workers between their second jobs and their second last jobs might find themselves if they experience labour disruption caused by digitization, globalization, evolving business models or a pandemic. Public Policy Forum’s Brave New Work Conference 2021 will explore the urgent policy conversation on what to do next.
When: Tuesday, June 22, 2021 - Wednesday, June 23, 2021, 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM ET
Where: Online via Zoom

Click here to register.

eBook of the Week

Home Care Fault Lines: Understanding Tensions and Creating Alliances, by Cynthia J. Cranford. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2020. 240 p. ISBN 9781501749285 (ebook)

From the publisher: "In this revealing look at home care, Cynthia J. Cranford illustrates how elderly and disabled people and the immigrant women workers who assist them in daily activities develop meaningful relationships even when their different ages, abilities, races, nationalities, and socioeconomic backgrounds generate tension. As Cranford shows, workers can experience devaluation within racialized and gendered class hierarchies, which shapes their pursuit of security. ... What comes through from Cranford's analysis is the need for deeply democratic alliances across multiple axes of inequality. To support both flexible care and secure work, she argues for an intimate community unionism that advocates for universal state funding, designs culturally sensitive labor market intermediaries run by workers and recipients to help people find jobs or workers, and addresses everyday tensions in home workplaces."

PWR: work&labour news&research


Human Resource Management

Labour Economics

Social Economy

Human Resource Management


COVID-19 Impacts on Faculty and Staff: Changing the Way Employees Work

“The goal of this project is to investigate the impact of current working arrangements at York University (among academic and administrative staff), arising from adaptations to the COVID-19 pandemic. … This report is based on a cross-sectional survey of York University all staff as a part of larger project being conducted across 11 universities in Australia and Canada. The survey entitled ‘Impact of COVID-19 work at home on York University staff’ was collected in August and September of 2020.”

“The findings from these tables show that the working preference of the majority of staff at York University is to split their time between the office and home after the pandemic. This contrasts with the practices of staff before the pandemic, where nearly all other staff and most faculty reported working at the university before the pandemic.”

“This section examines the personal experiences of York University employees that are related to their well-being related to work during the pandemic. The results indicate an overall decrease in job satisfaction occurred, while a very substantive increase in stress was experienced. Further, large proportions of employees’ report an increase in work interference with personal life. The pathway of relationships is typically considered to flow from work Interference with personal life to stress, and from stress to job satisfaction outcomes.”

York University, 2021: “COVID-19 Impacts on Faculty and Staff: Changing the way employees work,” by James Chowhan and Kelly Pike, Full Report (67 pages, PDF), Short Report (12 pages, PDF)

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Analog Policies in a Digital World: How Workplace Harassment Policies Need to Adapt to an Increasingly Digital Education Environment

“We examined harassment and discrimination policies at Canadian universities and colleges to identify areas that require updating for an increasingly digital research and education environment. In this article, we detail the limitations of these policies and recommend ways to fill the gaps. We have also spoken to and surveyed scholars who use online spaces in the course of their work to identify the kinds of support they need so that we can better understand how existing policies fall short.”

“We identified policies at 129 (56%) institutions. Of these, only 41 institutions acknowledged online abuse and harassment in some way. … Overall, we found that the policies did not align with what scholars who have experienced online harassment have told us they need in order to feel supported by their institutions. … The scope of these 41 policies fell short in two ways: First, the main objective of many policies is to protect members of the university or college community from abuse and harassment from other members of the same institution. While this stipulation is reasonable in the context of a postsecondary institution, it precludes perpetrators of online abuse and harassment that are unknown, anonymous, or not part of the institutional community. … Second, policies often define their scope in relation to campus spaces. In the policies we examined, the ones that define their scope in relation to place typically limit harassment to spaces such as sanctioned events, events related to work and study, or any other place needed to fulfil duties to the institution. This provision opens up the possibility for policies to cover individuals who are not related to the university or college community but ignores the fact that scholars’ online abuse and harassment is not always directly tied to institutional spaces.”

Academic Matters, May 19, 2021: “Analog policies in a digital world: How workplace harassment policies need to adapt to an increasingly digital education environment,” by Jaigris Hodson, Chandell Gosse, George Veletsianos

Public Scholarship & Online Harassment website

Veletsianos, G., Houlden, S., Hodson, J. & Hodson, C. (2018). Women scholars’ experiences with online harassment and abuse: Self-protection, resistance, acceptance, and self-blame. New media & Society 20 (12), 4689-4708. 

Hodson, J., Gosse, C., Veletsianos, G., & Houlden, S. (2018). I get by with a little help from my friends: The ecological model and support for women scholars experiencing online harassment. First Monday23(8). (HTML)

Gosse, C., Veletsianos, G., Hodson, J., Houlden, S., Dousay, T. A., Lowenthal, P. R. & Hall, N. (2021) The hidden costs of connectivity: nature and effects of scholars’ online harassment, Learning, Media and Technology, 

University Affairs, October 23, 2019: “The growing problem of online harassment in academe,” by Christina Frangou

Cassidy, W., Faucher, C., Jackson, M. (2017). Adversity in University: Cyberbullying and Its Impacts on Students, Faculty and Administrators. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14 (8): 888. 

Cassidy, W., Faucher, C., Jackson, M. (2018). Cyberbullying at University in International Contexts. London: Routledge. (Available to U of T community)

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Why Many Racialized People Feel They Need to ‘Code-Switch’ in the Workplace

“As a gay, Black man, Jefferson Darrell has been ‘code-switching’ his entire life. … 'I once worked in a public-sector organization that suffered from anti-Black racism as well as homophobia,' recalled the Toronto-based founder of consultancy Breakfast Culture, which helps cultivate inclusive workplaces. 'Both myself and my white colleague would get excited about our work, yet I was told that my excitement appeared ‘too aggressive and intimidating’ and her excitement was considered ‘passionate.’'”

“For Mr. Darrell and so many racialized people, code-switching is a go-to tool used to 'fit’ into the workplace. It involves modifying the way you speak or behave to accommodate different norms, then switching back to your way of being when you are outside these spaces. Based on various research studies, we know this can be effective; for example, when Black students code-switch between standard English in class and African-American Vernacular English with their friends, their 'social standing’ rises with each audience.”

“Prof. Foster suggests thinking of code-switching as being fluent in a second language. Code-switchers, like people who speak more than one language, tend to have better memory, listening, problem-solving and critical-thinking skills, enhanced concentration and the ability to multitask, he says. … That’s why building a supportive network, largely made up of racialized people who can understand what you’re feeling, is crucial to finding comfort during a typical 9-to-5 job, he adds. In the workplace, these are called 'affinity groups.’ They help with legitimizing one’s identity, networking, collaboration and productivity.”

The Globe and Mail, May 28, 2021: “Why many racialized people feel they need to ‘code-switch’ in the workplace,” by Sadaf Ahsan

Durkee, M. & Williams, J. L. (2013). Accusations of Acting White: Links to Black Students’ Racial Identity and Mental Health. Journal of Black Psychology 41 (1), 26-48. (23 pages, PDF)

Lambertz-Berndt, M. M. (2016). Communicating Identity in the Workplace and Affinity Groups Spaces. Theses and Dissertations from the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. (113 pages, PDF)

Hall, J. C., Hamilton-Mason, J., Everett, J. E. (2012). Black Women Talk About Workplace Stress and How They Cope. Journal of Black Studies 43 (2), 207-226. (Available to the U of T Community)

National Association for Law Placement (NALP), February 2021: NALP Report on Diversity (32 pages, PDF)

Gulati, M. & Carbado, D.W. (2004). Race to the Top of the Corporate Ladder: What Minorities Do When They Get There, Washington & Lee Law Review 61, 1645-1693. (50 pages, PDF)

Secret Sauce Blog website

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Working From Home after the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Estimate of Worker Preferences

“In February 2021, new teleworkers—individuals who usually worked outside the home prior to the COVID-19 pandemic but worked most of their hours from home during the week of February 14 to 20— were asked the degree to which they would prefer working from home once the COVID-19 pandemic is over.”

“Focusing on employees who had been with the same employer since at least March 2019, Mehdi and Morissette (2021) show that 80% of these new teleworkers would like to work at least half of their hours from home once the pandemic is over—41% would prefer working about half of their hours at home and the other half outside the home, while 39% would prefer working most (24%) or all (15%) of their hours at home. The remaining 20% would prefer working most (11%) or all (9%) of their hours outside the home.”

“How does this estimate of worker preferences in a post-COVID-19 context compare with the share of total hours worked from home by employees prior to COVID-19? In 2016 and 2018, employees worked no more than 5% of their total hours from home. Therefore, the overall share of total hours that employees might prefer working from home once the COVID-19 pandemic ends equals almost five times the overall share of total hours they worked from home prior to COVID-19. … Likewise, the share of total hours that women would prefer working from home (28%) is higher than that of men (22%), partly reflecting the fact that jobs held by women tend to be more conducive to telework than those held by men (Deng, Messacar and Morissette 2020).”

Statistics CanadaMay 26, 2021: Working from home after the COVID-19 pandemic: An estimate of worker preferences, by Tahsin Mehdi and René Morissette (6 pages, PDF)

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'Burnout' Crisis at Work Threatens Post-Pandemic Workplaces

“Calling it a ‘crisis at work,’ Catalyst found in a global survey that 92% of workers say they are experiencing burnout from the stress related to their workplace, their Covid-19 work experiences, and/or their personal lives. … The study, Remote-Work Options Can Boost Productivity and Curb Burnout, surveyed nearly 7,500 employees across the globe and defines burnout as 'the physical and psychological exhaustion that comes from prolonged stress with negative consequences, including mental distance from one’s job and feelings of professional inefficacy.’ It is the first installment of Catalyst’s Equity in the Future of Work research series.”

“The data show that when companies offer remote-work options—including a flexible work location, distributed teams, and/or virtual work/telework/working from home—employees report a 26% decrease in workplace burnout compared to people who do not have remote-work access. Workplace burnout drops 43% when employees have remote-work access and their managers demonstrate empathy, compared to people without remote-work access or empathic managers.”

“The study also finds employees with remote-work access are 30% less likely to look for another job in the next year compared to people who do not have remote-work access. Women with childcare responsibilities are 32% less likely to report intending to leave their job when they have remote-work access, compared to women with childcare responsibilities who do not have access to remote work.”

Catalyst Media Release, May 26, 2021: “'Burnout’ Crisis at Work Threatens Post-Pandemic Workplaces”

Catalyst, 2021: Remote-work options can boost productivity and curb burnout, by Tara Van Bommel 

How to Prevent Employee Burnout

“The World Health Organization offers this burnout definition: 'a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed.’”

“Employees who say they very often or always experience burnout at work are:

  • 63% more likely to take a sick day
  • ½ as likely to discuss how to approach performance goals with their manager
  • 23% more likely to visit the emergency room
  • 2.6x as likely to be actively seeking a different job
  • 13% less confident in their performance”

Gallup, (n.d.): “How to Prevent Employee Burnout”

World Health Organization, May 28, 2019: “Burn-out an 'occupational phenomenon’: International Classification of Diseases”

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How the Coronavirus Outbreak Has – and Hasn’t – Changed the Way Americans Work

“The abrupt closure of many offices and workplaces this past spring ushered in a new era of remote work for millions of employed Americans and may portend a significant shift in the way a large segment of the workforce operates in the future. Most workers who say their job responsibilities can mainly be done from home say that, before the pandemic, they rarely or never teleworked. Only one-in-five say they worked from home all or most of the time. Now, 71% of those workers are doing their job from home all or most of the time. And more than half say, given a choice, they would want to keep working from home even after the pandemic.”

“To be sure, not all employed adults have the option of working from home, even during a pandemic. In fact, a majority of workers say their job responsibilities cannot be done from home. There’s a clear class divide between workers who can and cannot telework. Fully 62% of workers with a bachelor’s degree or more education say their work can be done from home. This compares with only 23% of those without a four-year college degree. Similarly, while a majority of upper-income workers can do their work from home, most lower- and middle-income workers cannot.”

“While the coronavirus has changed the way many workers do their job – whether in person or from home – it hasn’t significantly reshaped the culture of work for a majority of employed adults. Among workers who are in the same job as they were before the coronavirus outbreak started, more than six-in-ten say they are as satisfied with their job now as they were before the pandemic and that there’s been no change in their productivity or job security. Even higher shares say they are just as likely now to know what their supervisor expects of them as they were before and that they have the same opportunities for advancement.”

Pew Research Center, December 9, 2020: How the Coronavirus Outbreak Has – and Hasn’t – Changed the Way Americans Work, by Kim Parker, Juliana Menasce Horowitz, and Rachel Minkin, Full Report (32 pages, PDF), Research Questionnaire (11 pages, PDF)

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Labour Economics


Immigration and the Success of Canada’s Post-Pandemic Economy

“Many highly skilled immigrants in Canada are working well below their potential. The country does a good job of attracting immigrants, but after welcoming them, many immigrants face barriers to finding job opportunities commensurate with their skills, experience and education. One sees it all the time — perhaps it’s the economist who’s driving for Uber or the nurse who’s working the checkout at Loblaws. And regardless of where they have ended up trying to make a living, the COVID-19 pandemic has worsened their lot even more.”

“The coronavirus forced the government to temporarily halt immigration, a major disruption for a country that usually welcomes hundreds of thousands of newcomers yearly. This will need to be remedied as a part of Canada’s post-pandemic economic rebuilding efforts. … Immigrants represent a critical source of population growth and remain one of the key solutions to Canada’s skilled labour shortage.”

Key Takeaways

  1. “While Canada’s skills-based immigration policy attracts highly skilled workers, a gap persists between those skills and immigrants’ success in the labour market. The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the problem of underemployment of immigrants, an existing issue that is already well documented.
  2. The pandemic has had a disproportionately adverse impact on vulnerable groups such as racialized women and youth. These challenges must be addressed to avoid a widening gap between immigrants and Canadian-born peers in the recovery, leading to further inequality.
  3. Entrepreneurship is an employment option that is attractive to many immigrants, but one that is often overlooked by policymakers. Supporting immigrant entrepreneurs begins with simply recognizing they exist and that they face distinct challenges and have distinct needs. This report explores how to help immigrant entrepreneurs overcome these specific challenges and how to meet their particular needs.”

Public Policy Forum, May 26, 2021: Immigration and the Success of Canada’s Post-Pandemic Economy, by Katherine Feenan and Shamira Madhany (44 pages, PDF)

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Under Pressure: Estimating the Demand and Supply for Bilingual Workers in Canada

“Skills shortages have long been a concern for policy makers. The lack of certain skills among the working population reduces Canada’s competitiveness and hampers economic growth. Even amid recently elevated unemployment rates, employers report difficulty finding qualified skilled workers to fill key vacancies. Among these are positions requiring the capacity to communicate effectively in both official languages.”

“Identifying the language requirements of jobs and the availability of workers who can meet those needs, however, is limited by the available data. As a result, it is challenging to estimate the true impact of language shortages in Canada, which in turn obscures the implementation of appropriate policy solutions. In this LMI Insight Report, we assess the current data and its capacity to identify potential shortages of bilingual workers. We then examine the feasibility of addressing these gaps through novel approaches.”

Key Findings

  • “The identification of skills shortages requires measuring and comparing the unmet demand for skills with the supply of skills. The current suite of survey instruments used to capture demand and supply, however, are not designed to collect data related to skills or other work requirements such as language.
  • Enhancements to existing surveys, subject to further examination and assessment, could improve our understanding of the unmet demand and supply of bilingual workers but are unlikely to yield much in the way of practical results.
  • Online job postings, albeit limited to the demand side, offer an efficient alternative with some advantages:
  1. Granularity: The number of online job postings listing bilingualism can be easily grouped by detailed occupation and location, as well as other work requirements. …
  2. Timeliness: Data are collected weekly and released monthly. For instance, in February 2020, there were just over 13,000 online job postings asking for bilingualism.
  3. Localness: Observations at the 4-digit NOC are available for small geographies.
  4. Coverage: Data on public administration jobs are captured, which accounts for a large share of bilingual job offerings.
  5. Trend analysis: Calculating shares within occupations at the 4-digit NOC level over time is possible. For instance, between 2018 and 2020, the share of job postings for Metallurgical and materials engineers asking for bilingualism increased by 14 percentage points.
  6. Levels of bilingualism: This report documents and analyzes online job postings for which bilingualism is specified as a work requirement. Future work in this area could disentangle these with further refinements, such as whether being bilingual is a requirement or an asset.”

“Despite these advantages, some considerable limitations also exist. In particular, online postings data only reflect demand and therefore can only signal the potential for shortages. Data also tend to be skewed towards occupations in certain industries and regions, as well as by firm size and educational requirements.”

Labour Market Information Council, May 2021: Under Pressure: Estimating the demand and supply for bilingual workers in Canada

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The Origin of the Gender Gap

“What are the historical roots of these international differences [in women’s status]? How far back do we need to go in history to find the root of divergence? Should we expect a convergence eventually? Such a long-term and global understanding of women’s history not only improves our understanding of the past but, importantly, teaches us about the future of women and other oppressed groups and their (potential) paths of emancipation. … Despite the debate on gender balance being front and centre in many societies, most research has focused on case studies of a few exceptional women or women’s status in a specific region in a particular era. … Our work seeks to address these questions systematically and quantitatively and provide a unified view of how women’s status evolved over the entire 5,000 years of human history.”

“To our surprise, we document no long-run trend in the women’s share at the top when analysing 5000 years of recorded human history. While women’s share fluctuates around an average of 10%, the main positive outlier is the third millennium BCE, driven by a high women’s presence among Ancient Egypt’s observations in the Human Biographical Record and echoes Egyptian women’s equal rights to men. This finding puts women’s contemporary struggle for equality in historical perspective. Women’s emancipation is not a contemporary concept, but the world had actually progressed quite far already a long time ago, before regressing.”

“But the modern rise of women has a distinct and important feature. A closer look at the Human Biographical Record individual-level data reveals that for most of history, women who became part of the elite were either born into influential families or married into them. … The first rise in the share of women among self-mades is recorded among writers and poets born between 1620 and 1660. It reflects the birth of ‘the feminine reading market’ in Protestant Europe. … During the same period, both the marriage and labour markets awarded a higher return to women’s education. The new feminine reading market encompassed new genres, such as the novel, in a new language: vernacular, not Latin. The book market structure with many small buyers and less guild presence may have played a significant role in creating a space for self-made women to flourish.”

Vox EU CEPR, May 27, 2021: “The origin of the gender gap,” by Arash Nekoei and Fabian Sinn

Human Record Research Project Homepage

Nekoei, A. and Sinn, F. (2020). HERSTORY The Rise of Self-Made Women. Available at SSRN:

Nekoei, A. and Sinn, F. (2020). Human Biographical Record (HBR). Available at SSRN:

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Social Economy


From Investment to Action: Building a Canada-wide Child Care System

“On April 19, 2021, the federal government put its stake in the ground on child care. The 2021-22 federal budget committed $30 billion over five years, and $8.3 billion per year on top of existing funding starting in 2025-26 totaling $9.2 billion, with the ultimate goal of supporting a child care system that offers an average charge to parents of $10 a day. This commitment delivers on over 50 years of advocacy work across the country. However, many details still need to be worked out to realize a high-quality, affordable and accessible Canada-wide early learning child care system.”

“In partnership with YMCA Canada, the Public Policy Forum undertook a research project to examine how to achieve a child care system that centres on quality, affordability, accessibility and inclusion, while also addressing key policy trade-offs to attain this goal. Through this research, it became abundantly clear that two main issues remain at play: jurisdiction and quality. In order to achieve the promised system, two foundational questions need to be settled: how can the federal government best act as a partner in child care, and what is necessary for the operation of a high-quality child care system across the country?”

Summary of Recommendations

  • “Develop and fund a comprehensive, national early learning and child care workforce strategy informed by labour force trends.
  • Ensure long-term predictability, stability and accountability of expanded funding to the provinces.
  • Extend direct wage support to ensure high-quality child care agencies withstand financial challenges exacerbated by COVID-19 and to maintain highly trained staff and quality spaces over the next 18 months.
  • Support the expansion and increased capacity of in-person and online early childhood education college programs across Canada to effectively build up the workforce in early learning and child care, and ensure curriculum continues to be reflective of the demands and realities of the role.
  • Harmonize tax-based support with the $10-a-day vision as it rolls out to ensure those with persisting access issues receive necessary support.”

Public Policy Forum, May 25, 2021: From Investment to Action: Building a Canada-wide Child Care System, by Katie Davey and Jessica Stepic Lue (21 pages, PDF)

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PWR: work&labour news&research, formerly the Weekly Work Report (2002 – 2006), the Perry Work Report (2006 – 2014) and the Perry Work Report: work&labour news&research (2014-2016), is a weekly e-publication of the CIRHR Library, University of Toronto.

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