Bi-monthly CADROSA newsletter 
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Welcome to the final CADROSA Incorporated newsletter for 2018!  

As we near the end of 2018, I encourage members to continue their amazing efforts to improve adolescent road safety, and to contemplate how we can continue to maintain traction in this critically important endeavour. Working together is the way we can make the greatest impact in the shortest period of time. Having said that, working together can be tricky…... Don’t be disheartened – we can help you overcome seemingly-insurmountable obstacles. For example, sometimes instead of going through the door that someone opens in the wall, you need to go around, over, or through the wall! Why is this collaboration so important? Let me explain.

There are many, many stakeholders in adolescent road safety in every motorised jurisdiction – some of these stakeholders are government departments, some are in manufacturing, others simply are parents, siblings, and the broader community. Reinventing the wheel, in which stakeholders work in isolation (and even worse, in competition) is not gaining the safety benefits we need. Moreover we should expect improvements, not a continuation of the status quo in which adolescents are hurt and killed in road crashes. This is exactly what drives the efforts of CADROSA. I cannot make a difference alone, and this where my stakeholder colleagues come in. Have a read through the story regarding the new driver licensing test as a great example.

Finally, I note I have had some health difficulties recently which has impacted upon my capacity to work. To the well-wishers, patient partners, and those stepping up to help me in this time of need, thank you for your support. I look forward soon to getting back to normal duties, albeit in a modified context.

Kind regards

Bridie, Founder and Consortium Leader
CADROSA Incorporated
New Learner Driver Licensing Test - Queensland, Australia

This month, Queensland’s Transport and Main Roads launched 'PrepL', an online training and assessment program ( An alternative to the traditional paper-based 30-item test to gain a Learner licence, PrepL comprises online activities with intermittent assessment before a final skills and knowledge test, and will replace the written test in due course. PrepL takes 4-6 hours to complete, and cannot be completed in one sitting to support the embedding of the knowledge and skills the pre-Learner begins to accumulate through the program. PrepL focuses on risks and safety associated with driving attitudes, signs and rules, and sharing the road with others through videos, cartoon images, interactive assessment, and audio cues. While Dr Bridie recommends that potential driving supervisors, including parents and older siblings, also engage with the pre-Learner and the PrepL activities, a supervisor-focused program is in development.

Here we have an excellent example of collaboration, with a state government department consulting various road safety experts including Dr Bridie (who features in PrepL videos as she explains risks, and how to minimise those risks, in a simple and engaging manner), and representatives of police, motoring and industry groups. PrepL is highly innovative also in that it caters for how adolescents learn and engage with resources – online activities extremely popular with our technology-engaged adolescents. To learn more, and to see the online testing style used in PrepL, visit .

Member Profile

Name: Amanda George
Position: Assistant Professor, Centre for Applied Psychology, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra. 
Contact details
For further information visit:
University of Canberra
Centre for Applied Psychology
University of Canberra
ACT  2617

Amanda’s research focus is risk-taking behaviours among young adults, such as problematic drinking patterns and mobile phone use while driving. She has been involved with/led several research projects examining mobile phone use while driving/drink driving among young people and identifies the need for evidence-based strategies to address this issue to improve road safety, especially the over-representation of our young drivers in car crashes and fatalities. She also supervises student projects in this area.

Why did you become a member of CADROSA?
I was very fortunate to work with Dr Bridie Scott-Parker during my Outside Studies Program (sabbatical) and in particular I was very impressed with the linkages between the centre at USC and the community, such as partnerships with police. This is something I have brought back with me to the University of Canberra—I really want to ensure that our research initiatives have practical impact for the community. I am excited to be welcomed into CADROSA and look forward to working with people from diverse backgrounds in achieving a common goal.

Something others may not know about you?
I have a particular interest in personality psychology (and I teach this as well at the University of Canberra). I am especially fascinated by impulsivity (as a multi-faceted construct) and how it can influence risk-taking behaviours, such as risky driving.
CADROSA Incorporated News

ADTA (Australian Driver Trainers Assocation) Conference
Dr Bridie and Natalie were invited to present at the ADTA conference in early November on the Gold Coast, Queensland.

GM, Mick Humphries, was an excellent host to over 100 delegates with thought-provoking presentations from the likes of Dr Ray Shuey and Keys2Drive, Andrew Rasch. For details of the presentations please see the 'Wrap Up" kindly shared by ADTA,
Special Contribution

Young Drivers and Licensing in Germany

Bernhard Schrauth, Walter Funk 
Institute for Empirical Sociology at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen, Nuremberg, Germany

In Germany, two options are provided for adolescents to acquire a “full-privileged” Class B driving license. Option 1, the conventional way of acquiring a driving license Class B, allows novice drivers to start driving on their own right after the successful completion of driver training and from the age of 18. Option 2 provides for an up to one-year accompanying phase that novice drivers can begin from age 17. During this period, novice drivers are only allowed to drive with an accompanying adult – most often a parent. When turning 18, adolescents who have undergone the accompanying phase can start driving solo.
Both options include identical driver education, training and testing. In Germany lay training is forbidden and thus professional driving schools provide the driver education and training. The theoretical part of the driver training is structured in 14 modules and has to be finished with a theoretical test that is delivered via PC multiple choice questions by the Technical inspecting organizations.
There is no fixed number of practical lessons. Besides basic training the learners have to complete twelve mandatory special excursions such as rides on rural roads, on Autobahns, and at night or in twilight. Research findings show learners engage in a median number of about 28 driving lessons. The practical test that completes the driver training is done in real traffic and taken by an examiner again from the Technical inspecting organizations. In the subsequent probation period only two restrictions apply: a zero alcohol limit until aged 21 years and stronger enforcement rules within the first two years of solo driving.
Option 2, the accompanied driving-scheme (AD17), was introduced in Germany in 2007. It has been rigorously evaluated and shown to be an effective road safety measure. Within the first year of solo-driving, the crash risk of novice drivers having participated in AD17 was reduced by 19 per cent. AD17 has gained wide popularity among adolescents and their parents.

Global Licensing Laws
We are in the process of developing a resource for the CADROSA Incorporated website which includes licensing legislation from nations across the globe. We encourage you to complete these details (Click here to download an easy-to-complete table) and forward them to Dr Walter Funk recently provided information regarding Germany's licensing legislation which can be found at
Plain English Summaries: Translation
There are currently 64 publications on the CADROSA Incorporated website that have been translated into 'Plain English'. The purpose of these Summaries to allow everyone with an interest in Road Safety to understand the research that is conducted within the realm of CADROSA.

We are now translating these Summaries into another eight languages to share this research across the globe. We are looking for volunteers to assist with the translations and would appreciate if you or someone you know could get in contact at to assist with fast-tracking the translation process.

The translations will include,
  • Portuguese
  • Spanish
  • Italian
  • Mandarin
  • Cantonese
  • Vietnamese
  • Arabic
  • Hindi
Furthermore, If you have a peer-reviewed publication, relevant to the work we do at CADROSA Incorporated, that you would like included on the website please translate this into 'Plain English' as per the below and forward to :

1. Why do this research?
2. What did we do?
3. What did we find?
4. What does it mean?
Please include the details of the publication and a link to the full text.

Plain English Summaries can be viewed at

Publication Update

"I need to skip a song because it sucks": Exploring mobile phone use while driving among young adults

George, A. M., Brown, P. M., Scholz, B., Scott-Parker, B., and Rickwood, D. (2018).
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 58, 382-391
The full article is accessible at

Why do this research?
Research suggests that mobile phone use while driving is especially common among young drivers and a major source of driver distraction. Given young drivers are over-represented in car crashes, and driver distraction is an area of concern, it is important to examine mobile phone use while driving among younger drivers. Most research has looked at the calling and texting functions of mobile phone use while driving. However, given the ability for smartphones to do far more than this, and the reliance many have on their mobile phone, it is important to consider the various ways in which the phone is being used while driving.

What did we do?
We ran an online survey of 612 young drivers in the Australian Capital Territory (and surrounding area) to examine how common hand-held mobile phone use while driving was among this age group (17-24 years) and to examine the types of phone functions (e.g., text messaging, social media) being used while driving. We also ran focus groups with young adult drivers to explore the way mobile phones were used while driving in greater depth.

What did we find?
Hand-held mobile phone use while driving was very common. For example, 78% of those in the survey had used their phone while driving in the past week to play music, 70% had read a text message and 61% had used the GPS function (there were other ways the phone was used while driving, but these were reported by less than 50% of respondents). Full licence drivers were more likely to use their phone for most functions compared with Learner/Provisional licence drivers. The focus groups identified that young drivers used their phone for entertainment (music/Pokémon Go), to connect with others (making/receiving calls, text messaging, use of social media) and to help them navigate. The emerging use of Snapchat was also noted.

What does it mean?
This study tells us that the way young drivers use their phone while driving is likely an extension of how they use their phones when not driving. Use of mobile phones while driving goes well beyond the traditional making/receiving calls and reading/sending text messages. We identified some evidence that full licence drivers are more likely to use their phone for some functions than learner/provisional drivers suggesting that young drivers may become more confident to use their phone while driving as they become more experienced. Interventions need to acknowledge the varied way phones are used while driving and we recommend examining the reasons for different phone functions (and how safe they are perceived to be) in the future.
Social Media
Dr Bridie was humbled to receive this honour of being recognised in the Top 100 most powerful people on the Sunshine Coast. Dr Bridie could only say "Let's keep working together to keep everyone in our community - near and far - safe from harm".
16th November 2018
Brigette Shelswell is our Communications Officer who updates and communicates the efforts of Dr Bridie's work through social media platforms. We are interested in posting your efforts on these platforms too as members of CADROSA Incorporated. Please contact Brigette, with any Road Safety updates you would like to share.
Dr Bridie is on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook.
CADROSA Incorporated Website
Frequently we need to access road safety images, and we may not have something suitable readily available. The CADROSA Incorporated webpage features a section in which images are shared, and categorised as, driver-specific, passenger-specific, pedestrian-specific, cyclist-specific, and powered two-wheeler-specific images, of course some photos may meet more than one of these catagories.  Please forward any images you may wish to share as jpeg files to
Traffic in Taipei, Taiwan. Photo courtesy of Natalie Watson-Brown,

Please note we authorise the use of images in the CADROSA Incorporated website gallery by CADROSA Incorporated members. We ask that the source of the images be acknowledged by anyone who uses the images.
CADROSA Incorporated Banner and Flyer
The CADROSA Incorporated exhibition banner has been updated to reflect our incorporation. The template is freely accessible for any CADROSA members to use.The banner can be downloaded here for printing.

We have recently created a promotional flyer which can also be accessed and used by CADROSA members:
Click here to access.


Submission Deadline
The CADROSA Incorporated newsletters will be issued every two months (September, November, January, March, May, July).  If you would like to submit content for the next newsletter please forward to

Submissions of content are to be received by the end of the preceding month so that it can be incorporated within the next newsletter.

Newsletters will be archived on the CADROSA Incorporated website.
Copyright © 2018 CADROSA Incorporated, All rights reserved.

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CADROSA · c/- Adolescent Risk Research Unit, Thompson Institute, University of the Sunshine Coast · 12 Innovation Parkway · Birtinya, Qld 4575 · Australia

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